First let us know about the major risk factors of cardio vascular diseases.
Cardiovascular risk factors
There are many risk factors associated with coronary heart disease and stroke. Some risk factors such as family history, ethnicity and age, cannot be changed. Other risk factors that can be treated or changed include tobacco exposure, high blood pressure (hypertension), high cholesterol, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes, unhealthy diets, and harmful use of alcohol.
Of particular significance in developing countries is the fact that while they are grappling with increasing rates of cardiovascular disease, they still face the scourges of poor nutrition and infectious disease.
You will not necessarily develop cardiovascular disease if you have a risk factor. But the more risk factors you have the greater is the likelihood that you will, unless you take action to modify your risk factors and work to prevent them compromising your heart health.
Modifiable risk factors
Hypertension is the single biggest risk factor for stroke. It also plays a significant role in heart attacks. Abnormal blood lipid levels, which is high total cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides, high levels of low-density lipoprotein or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol all increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Changing to a healthy diet, exercise and medication can modify your blood lipid profile.
Tobacco use, whether it is smoking or chewing tobacco, increases risks of cardiovascular disease. The risk is especially high if you started smoking when young. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Stopping tobacco use can reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease significantly, no matter how long you have smoked.
Physical Inactivity increases the risk of heart disease and stroke by 50%. Obesity is a major risk for cardiovascular disease and predisposes you to diabetes which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Type2 diabetes a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke. Having diabetes makes you twice as likely as someone who does not to develop cardiovascular disease. If you do not control diabetes then you are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease at an earlier age than other people and it will be more devastating. If you are a pre-menopausal woman, your diabetes cancels out the protective effect of estrogen and your risk of heart disease rises significantly.
A diet high in saturated fat increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. It is estimated to cause about 31% of coronary heart disease and 11% of stroke worldwide.
Being poor, no matter where in the globe, increases your risk of heart disease and stroke. A chronically stressful life, social isolation, anxiety and depression increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Having one to two alcohol drinks a day may lead to a 30% reduction in heart disease, but above this level alcohol consumption will damage the heart muscle.
Certain medicines may increase the risk of heart disease such as the contraceptive pill and hormone replacement therapy (HRT).
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.
Non-modifiable risk factors
Simply getting old is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease; risk of stroke doubles every decade after age 55.
Your family’s history of cardiovascular disease indicates your risk. If a first-degree blood relative has had coronary heart disease or stroke before the age of 55 years (for a male relative) or 65 years (for a female relative) your risk increases.
Your gender is significant: as a man you are at greater risk of heart disease than a pre-menopausal woman. But once past the menopause, a woman’s risk is similar to a man’s. Risk of stroke is similar for men and women.
Your ethnic origin plays a role. People with African or Asian ancestry are at higher risks of developing cardiovascular disease than other racial groups.
|Option||Early Morning||Breakfast||Mid Morning||Lunch||Evening||Dinner|
|1||Walnuts||Oatmeal porridge (1%fat milk), Blueberries||Apple||Whole Wheat phulkas/Rotis (no oil/ghee), Purple cabbage and peas curry, Dal fry, Tomato Salad, Yogurt (fat free)||Green Tea||Whole Wheat phulkas/Rotis (no oil/ghee), Mixed Veg Sabzi, Sprouts salad, Buttermilk (chaach), Peach|
|2||100% Grape Juice||Cucumber and tomato sandwich with mint chutney (Doule fibre bread)||Plum||Whole Wheat phulkas/Rotis (no oil/ghee), Alu methi, Dal palak, Green salad, Yogurt (fat free)||Tea (1% fat milk), Sprouted Moong Salad||Brown Rice, Beans sabzi/ palya, Fish curry (or Masoor dal), Cucumber raitha, Strawberries|
|3||Toasted sunflower seeds||Soy Idli, Sambar, Tomato chutney (no coconut)||Nectarine||Brown rice, Capsicum curry, Rajma curry, Steamed Asparagus, Mint raitha||Fruit chaat (no sev/papdi)||Whole wheat phulkas/Rotis (no oil/ghee), Carrot peas sabzi/palya, Tofu burji, Mixed Veg Salad, Blackberries|
|4||Green tea||Multi-grain cereal with flax seed, 1% fat milk, Strawberries||Raspberries||100 % Whole wheat wrap, Grilled chicken, Steamed veggies, Yogurt (fat free)||Whole Wheat crackers||Mixed Vegetable Pulao (with brown rice), Channa masala, Mint raita, Cantaloupe|
|5||Herb tea||Double fibre bread, Egg white/ omelette, Orange||Walnuts||Mixed Veg soup, Whole Wheat rolls, Grilled Salmon, Tomato Salad, Buttermilk (low fat)||Carrot sticks, Hummus||Wheat Pasta with Vegetables, Grilled tofu, Corn and bean salad, Papaya|
Do’s & Don’ts to be followed in Cardio Vascular Diseases:
|Foods to Include||Foods to Avoid|
|Raw whole fruits, vegetables, green vegetables, oats, whole grains, pulses, almonds, walnuts, skimmed milk, egg white, lean chicken, lean fish etc.||Fruit juices with sugar, sweets, fried food, processed food, packed foods, butter, margarine, cream, mayonnaise, mutton, meat, fried chicken etc.|
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