Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
In Ayurveda diabetes is known as Madhumeha and is classified as a kapha type of disorder.
Insulin the principal hormone, is released into the blood by beta cells (β-cells), found in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, in response to rising levels of blood glucose, that regulates the uptake of glucose from the blood into most cells of the body, especially liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. Therefore, deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors plays a central role in all forms of diabetes mellitus
It is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. There are three main types of diabetes mellitus:
Type 1 DMresults from the pancreas’s failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”.
Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”. The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.
Gestational diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood-sugar levels.
Normal and diabetic blood sugar ranges
For the majority of healthy individuals, normal blood sugar levels are as follows:
Between 72 to 108 mg/dL when fasting
Up to 140 mg/Dl 2 hours after eating
For people with diabetes, blood sugar level are as follows:
Before meals: two consecutive fasting blood glucose tests that are equal to or greater than 126 mg/dL.
After meals: Any random glucose that is greater than 200mg/dl for
Signs and symptoms
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are weight loss, When the glucose concentration in the blood remains high over time, thekidneys will reach a threshold of reabsorption, and glucose will be excreted in the urine (Glycosuria). This increases the osmotic pressure of the urine and inhibits reabsorption of water by the kidney, resulting in increased urine production (Polyuria) and increased fluid loss. Lost blood volume will be replaced osmotically from water held in body cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst (Polydipsia) and Polyphagia (increased hunger).
Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 DM, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 DM.
In addition to the known ones above, they include blurry vision, headache,fatigue, slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as Diabetic Dermadromes.
Long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually. The longer you have diabetes — and the less controlled your blood sugar — the higher the risk of complications. Eventually, diabetes complications may be disabling or even life-threatening. Possible complications include:
Cardiovascular disease.Diabetes dramatically increases the risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis). If you have diabetes, you are more likely to have heart disease or stroke.
Nerve damage (neuropathy).Excess sugar can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your nerves, especially in your legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. Left untreated, you could lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs. Damage to the nerves related to digestion can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, it may lead to erectile dysfunction.
Kidney damage (nephropathy).The kidneys contain millions of tiny blood vessel clusters (glomeruli) that filter waste from your blood. Diabetes can damage this delicate filtering system. Severe damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Eye damage (retinopathy).Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), potentially leading to blindness. Diabetes also increases the risk of other serious vision conditions, such as cataracts and glaucoma.
Foot damage.Nerve damage in the feet or poor blood flow to the feet increases the risk of various foot complications. Left untreated, cuts and blisters can develop serious infections, which often heal poorly. These infections may ultimately require toe, foot or leg amputation.
Hearing impairment.Hearing problems are more common in people with diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes later in life.Babies of mothers who have gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life.
Untreated gestational diabetes can result in a baby’s death either before or shortly after birth.
ELEMENTS AND SECONDARY ENZYME FUNCTIONS IN DIBETES
HOW TO REDUCE BLOOD SUGAR
Diabetes is metabolic disease which is prevent and cure to manage our diet and daily routein with some supplements. To manage blood sugar we should manage our lifestyle with-
Avoid day time sleep
Take care of your eyes & injuries
Avoid starchy and fatty food.
Say yes to low calories & low‐fat alkaline diet
Include Vegetables: Bitter Gourd, string beans, cucumber, onion, garlic.
SUGAR METABOLISM SUPPORT
It contains phytochemicals which supports releasing insulin in the pancreas & helps balance tri‐dosha (according ayurveda’s) glucose level in blood vessel symptoms related to urinary tract disorders, PME & ED, and complication like diabetic neuropathy.
SYZYGIUM CUMIN (JAMUN)
MOMORDICA CHARANTIA (KARELA)
PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM (VIJAYSAAR)
TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (GUDUCHI)
GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE (GUDMAR)
SWERTIA CHITRA (CHIRAYATA)
TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM (METHI)
AEGLE MARMELOS (BILVA)
SUGAR SUPPORT FORMULA
It contains phytochemicals which helps destroys sugar, regulates metabolism, and support the normal function cells, neutralizes the craving for sweets and regulates metabolism.